by Susan Gitlin, ARMN member
Warm weather and mosquitoes will be here before you know it, leading many of us to look for ways to enjoy the outdoors without being pestered by those annoying little—and sometimes disease-bearing—biters.
There is a lot of information being disseminated by health organizations about health risks to humans from mosquito bites (see CDC links, below). But besides protecting ourselves from being targets, we need to work at eliminating mosquito habitat and controlling their numbers. There are a number of ways we can do this safely and effectively.
Because mosquitoes have no trouble flying from yard to yard, the best way to combat them is to work with our neighbors to collectively identify and implement opportunities to reduce mosquito populations. Below is a set of approaches that are suggested by entomologists, public health organizations, and agricultural extension programs.
1. Eliminate potential mosquito-breeding grounds. Mosquitoes can breed in any water that stagnates for just 2 or 3 days. Actions to remove potential mosquito habitat include:
- Unclogging gutters
- Covering, turning over, or moving indoors any equipment, containers, or toys that might collect water
- Straightening sagging tarps or other covers
- Filling in areas under outdoor faucets or air conditioning drains
- Repairing damaged screens on rain barrels
- Removing English Ivy (The dense nature of ivy allows it to hold in pooled water where mosquitoes can breed, provides a humid area that mosquitoes like, and protects mosquitoes from pesticide sprays.)
2. For areas of uncovered water, like ponds or bird baths, consider these approaches:
- Changing the water regularly
- Using Mosquito Dunks ® (deadly to mosquito, blackfly, and fungus gnat larvae, but harmless to other living things), or
- Keeping the water moving (e.g., with a fountain)
3. Treat mosquitoes like foes, but treat bees and other beneficial insects like the friends they are! The pesticides used to kill mosquitoes also kill other invertebrates, including pollinators and other insects—insects on which birds feed and insects that eat mosquitoes. Mosquito-spraying companies typically use pesticides of a group of chemicals called pyrethroids, many of which are highly toxic to honeybees, fish, and small aquatic organisms.
4. If you spray pesticides or hire a company that provides such services, please consider taking the following precautions and/or asking the pesticide spraying company to do the same:
- Spray only in the early morning or early evening. Most pollinators are not out and about during these time periods.
- Do not spray flowering plants. (One company that provides pesticide spraying services says that before spraying flowers they “shoo” away bees with bursts of air. It is doubtful that this truly protects bees, as the majority of native bees are less than ¼” long and therefore difficult to spot. Moreover, bees will return immediately to those flowers, either into the path of the spray or to the flowers, where there may be pesticide residue.)
- Make sure that no spray enters your neighbors’ yards, and notify your neighbors before you spray so that they can take any desired or necessary precautions to protect any bees or other insects that they have in their yards.
- Consider using nontoxic repellants in lieu of the toxic pesticides. Some mosquito-spraying companies offer such alternatives.
5. If you use sprays, do so only when needed, and not on a preemptive basis. (Spraying on a predetermined schedule can waste pesticide product, and therefore money, and may also contribute to the development of pesticide-resistant mosquitoes.)
By taking these steps, we can work together as a community to fight this annoying pest while protecting our other precious environmental resources.
Some useful websites:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/westnile/prevention/ and http://www.cdc.gov/features/stopmosquitoes/
Environmental Protection Agency—Mosquito Control: http://www.epa.gov/mosquitocontrol
Virginia Cooperative Extension Service: http://offices.ext.vt.edu/chesterfield/programs/anr/Wildlife/Fight_the_Bite.pdf
Maryland Department of Agriculture: http://mda.maryland.gov/plants-pests/Pages/avoid_asian_tiger_mosquitoes.aspx
Backyard Mosquito Management—Beyond Pesticides: http://www.beyondpesticides.org/assets/media/documents/mosquito/documents/backyard_mosquito_management.pdf
Honeybee Love: Keeping Honeybees Safe While Using Pesticides:
Mosquito Dunks ® Fact Sheet: http://www.planetnatural.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/mosquito-dunks-faq.pdf
4 thoughts on “How to Control Mosquitoes Without Killing Pollinators and Other Important Wildlife”
Thank you so much for this well written post! I was so glad to see removal of English Ivy as an important way to eliminate mosquito habitat. There is a lot of it in parts of my yard- I’ve been working for years to get rid of it. I noticed that any time I’m near it, the mosquitoes practically swarm out of it and on to me.
I have also noticed some types of mulch seem to be a breeding ground for them! I suppose since the purpose of mulch is to help keep the ground more moist, the mosquitoes can find enough moisture there to breed. Yuck! It seems the pine “nuggets” are worse for mosquito breeding than the shredded-style mulch. I’m not too big on mulching, but will usually do it the first year for a new flower bed to help the plants get established in the hottest summer months (and to cut down on having to water them every day).
In the mean time, I’m trying a garlic-based spray on the mulch and ivy. If it works, I’ll let you know! 🙂
Very useful information. Thank you. Daniel
I’m in Sevilla and the mosquitos if infected and bite, one can become very ill, and some people have died.
The autoraties are obliging us to spray and had them the approved certificate.
In the land I have common wasps, all sorts of lizards, ladybirds, lots of passing birds, ants, kriquets, and the Lists goes on.
I’m wondering what to do.
Editor note: Replied directly to Daniel. With a West Nile Virus outbreak, the government really needs to manage the virus by spraying chemicals to kill the mosquitoes. While this will likely harm pollinators and other wildlife, in such a public health emergency, government leaders do—and should—spray to kill the mosquitoes to protect human populations.